Valgus deformity of the knee — causes, methods of determination and therapy

Valgus deformity of the knee is the curvature of the lower extremities in the form of the letter H. the Pathology often affects children and the elderly. Curvature of the legs can progress, causing irreversible changes in joint and muscle tissue. The disease is easier to therapy at an early stage, so it is important not to miss the moment and start treating valgus. as soon as possible.

valgus deformity of the knee

Looks like?

For hallux valgus characterized by a curvature of the limbs, in which between the femur and tibia form an angle opening outward. Such a violation may appear on one or both sides simultaneously. Bilateral localization of pathology provokes the formation of X-shaped lower limbs in children and adults.

Some neonatal doctors note a slight change in the position of the knee according to the type of hallux valgus. This is due to a certain position of the quadriceps. This state of muscles and joints is a physiological, if the data of measurements of the angles correspond to the average health indicators.

If the correct leg shape is conventionally carried out line from the femoral head to the first interdigital interval of the foot passing through the middle of the knee, always get a straight line. About the curvature of the evidence is the position of the lower extremities, in which it is impossible to construct a straight line through these three points.

The reasons for the development of the curvature of the legs

Congenital valgus deformity of feet of the child is often the consequence of various genetic diseases. Negative impact on the correct formation of the knee joints, bones and muscles in the fetus can also provide some environmental factors. Embryogenesis disturbance cause by the following reasons:

  • stressful situation;
  • the use of drugs (especially antibiotics) during pregnancy;
  • environmental pollution;
  • the penetration of various chemicals and toxins in the body of the mother;
  • ionizing radiation, the damage depends on the duration of exposure of radiation;
  • acute infectious processes is carried over into the period of gestation of the child;
  • contusions of the abdomen of the pregnant woman;
  • disruption of the endocrine organs;
  • the aggravation or the debut of autoimmune diseases of the mother during the formation of fetal bone and articular structures.
causes falguni deformation

The disease can also occur in childhood or adolescence due to the lack of calcium or vitamin D.

Hallux valgus curvature of the foot in adults develops as a result of severe trauma and subsequent disruption of the structure of bone, joint and muscle tissue, adverse living conditions. These include the following:

  1. Inflammatory joint diseases: bursitis, arthritis.
  2. Endocrine and autoimmune illness, affecting muscles and bones.
  3. Fractures of the leg with displacement of bone fragments.
  4. Subluxations, dislocations of the knee.
  5. Ruptures of major ligaments of the lower extremities (especially in the presence of necrotic changes of the connective tissue).
  6. Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals from food.
  7. The unfavorable ecological situation.

Clinical signs and diagnosis

In the case of a hallux valgus deformation of the damaged areas of the extremities — foot and knee — bend and change its physiological position. Pathology is complicated by development of progressive flatfoot. Patients complain of painful sensations in the affected limbs, fatigue during walking.

If the lesion is accompanied by bilateral, but unequal curvature of the joints, the patient gradually formed the scoliosis. In severe cases a person suffering from valgus deformity, gait changes — it becomes commiscens and unstable. In congenital curvature of the feet of the child, possible changes of the femoral neck.

Violations of the right position bones and joints reflect well on x-rays. Radiography is the main diagnostic technique in any pathology of the musculoskeletal apparatus. Based on this examination, the specialist determines the degree of deviation from the normal position.

diagnosis of the disease

In order to determine the Hallux valgus of the legs lose the child, simple enough careful examination. You also need to measure the gap between the ankles when clausa position of the hips and compare it with the age norm. The use of radiography allows us to estimate another measure of deformation is the angle of deflection of the knee. If it exceeds 10°, the violation is confirmed.

To determine the cause of hallux valgus curvature of the knees, performed laboratory diagnosis. In the biochemical analysis of blood of the patient determine the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, uric acid level, presence of rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein.

Methods of treatment of hallux valgus

In the case of melanoma has been diagnosed, the baby hallux valgus correction of the knee should be addressed immediately. After all, when the child begins to walk, increases the load on the osteoarticular apparatus of the lower extremities that can lead to the rapid progression of the disease. To correct valgus. use the following therapeutic procedures:

  • physiotherapy;
  • massage techniques;
  • the use of special covers for the joints (orthoses), shoes or insoles.

Mandatory for every patient is prescribed physiotherapy, often suggest yoga. With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy of the doctors recommend surgery.

Children suffering from hallux valgus lesions of the legs, suggest to do gymnastics, swimming, Cycling. It can also be helpful for such a child walking barefoot on sand or grass. For each patient individually, the specialist picks up the orthopedic shoes with special inserts and a beveled heel.

Important! Treatment of valgus. knee joints in children is to use all available therapeutic methods. It is very important as early as possible to begin to correct deformities of the foot until the bone and muscle tissue has not lost its plasticity.

If the parents went to the doctors later and all of these methods remedy the defect fail, the experts recommend surgery.

The goal of surgical intervention is correction of the axis of the lower limb and, in particular, hip, and then applied the Ilizarov apparatus.

complications

Can be complications

When valgus deformity of the leg and foot often enough and in young and adult patients, there are additional problems. Among the most common are the following:

  • pronounced pain in the injured foot, worse with physical stress;
  • lesions of the meniscus of the knee joint;
  • stretching and tearing of the joint ligaments;
  • degenerative change of the cartilage of the knee (gonarthrosis).

In the postoperative period may develop the following complications:

  1. Infectious inflammatory processes. To prevent the rods and spokes that fix the limb in a certain position, you need to regularly treat with antiseptics.
  2. Bleeding from damage to blood vessels during installation of the Ilizarov apparatus.
  3. Failure of retaining structures in service. In this case, carry out an additional operation and replace the broken part.
  4. Pronounced and long-lasting pain syndrome. Caused by failure of the propulsion mode and a violation of medical regulations. In such a situation, the patient is prescribed painkillers.

Preventive measures

To prevent the occurrence and further progression of the deformity of the knee joints and feet, it is recommended to avoid physical overload. Extremely important with this disease daily exercise, physical therapy, and periodic courses of massage, the correct selection of shoes.

Children prescribed a set of exercises. Stimulate the correction of existing violations of the following physical activity:

gymnastics
  • jumping on an exercise ball in sitting position with extended legs;
  • movements of the type "bike";
  • swimming;
  • capture small objects from the floor with the toes;
  • walking with support on the outer part of the sole.

Massage helps to reduce the symptoms of valgus. and to prevent the recurrence of the disease in the future. It strengthens the muscular system of the legs, improves nerve conduction, tones the body. Massaging motion is especially useful when physical inactivity. They eliminate blood stasis, relieve muscle fatigue and reduce pain. Massage should be performed by experienced specialist. If necessary, he will also teach parents so they can do it at home yourself.

It is important to remember that treating disease with massage techniques to properly. The child should not experience pain during the procedure! Otherwise, the baby will stretch the muscles, to sulk, to refuse manipulation.

Questions and answers

Question: Why Hallux valgus foot damage develops in old age?

Answer: the Symptoms of this disease occur in the elderly. Most often this phenomenon occurs after previously suffering injuries, but it could be a result of the increased load on the osteoarticular apparatus of the feet.

Question: rickets Is the cause of valgus deformity of the joints in children?

Answer: Rickets may be a causal factor for the occurrence of valgus.. Because this disease develops on the background of deficiency of vitamin D, necessary for the formation of bone tissue. If the child's body lacks this substance, the leg bones starting to bend. It usually become noticeable at the age of 2-3 years.

Question: what are the benefits of orthopedic shoes?

Answer: When hallux valgus lesions is recommended to wear special shoes. It securely locks the leg in the correct position, thereby reducing the load on the foot, knee and hip joints, decreasing the likelihood of developing flat feet and scoliosis.

before and after

Conclusion

Valgus deformity of the knee has a relatively favorable prognosis. And in childhood, and in adolescence the child should be regularly examined by a pediatrician and narrow specialists. With timely treatment, comprehensive treatment of the baby get rid of the disease already for 3-4 years. Adults with the appearance of the above disorders are also encouraged to seek help from a specialist. The prescribed treatment will prevent the progression of disease, get rid of the unpleasant symptoms that reduce quality of life.

27.12.2018