The symptoms and treatment of hallux valgus flat feet in adults

Valgus feet — pediatric orthopedic pathology that occurs for different reasons and leading to persistent changes and dysfunction of the feet. The treatment of hallux valgus stop long, it needs to start early, done by a specialist podiatrist. In severe cases, to cure hallux valgus deformation is possible only surgically.

valgus deformity of foot

Information about hallux valgus

Incorrect configuration of feet, where the reliance is more on their internal plantar surface, called a valgus deformity. The Latin term valgus means "curvature", "turning outwards". This means that as the foot would be deployed in the outward direction, their combined shape resembles the letter H.

The reasons for the development

In its origin hallux valgus can be congenital or acquired. Cause of congenital deformity is a dysplasia (underdevelopment) of fetal connective tissue, which includes muscles, ligaments, joints, tendons. This happens in premature infants, and also exposed to various negative influences in utero (viral infection, drugs, alcohol). This also can be attributed to constitutional (hereditary, so-called family) valgus..

Acquired valgus feet develops in the following cases:

  • after injuries: fractures of leg and foot, damage to muscles, tendons, articular ligaments, nerve fibers;
  • in endocrine disorders, leading to weakening of the tissues of the extremities;
  • in obesity, when the foot is overstretched;
  • with the progression of flat feet and the redistribution of the load center;
  • in diseases of the nervous system, accompanied by paresis, paralysis, spastic syndrome;
  • patients with systemic diseases (collagenosises), when affects the connective tissue;
  • in children suffering from rickets.

The clinical symptoms, the degree

The disease leads to not just an aesthetic violation, and has a range of symptoms and functional disorders. It is always accompanied by pain while walking and prolonged stay on his feet, difficulty wearing shoes, it is very difficult to find a convenient option. Also join pain in the leg muscles due to overload, the gait is disturbed.

Gradually, the deformation progresses due to the development of flat feet and displacement of the bones. In the ankle there is a protrusion through the talus and navicular bones, the joint is deformed. The patient when walking more rests on the inner edge of the heel and outer edge of the foot loses its support function.

the degree of hallux valgus

Depending on the severity of the changes of the foot isolated grade 3 hallux valgus:

  1. The first, or mild, in which the arch height of not less than 15 mm, and its maximum angle of 140°, the vertical axis rejected for not more than 10°.
  2. Second degree, or moderate: arch height reduced to 10 mm, the angle is increased to 160°, and the deviation from the vertical axis is 11-15°.
  3. The third, or severe degree: arch height less than 10 mm, the angle more than 160°, and the angle of deviation of the foot outward from the vertical axis more than 15°.

Important! The child most often, the deformity manifested, when he begins to walk. At the first sign of the curvature should immediately consult a pediatric orthopedist in time to begin treatment.

Diagnosis

After the external examination of the foot, the doctor prescribes additional examinations:

  • in computer plantography — to determine the exact extent of deformation, and the measurement of angles, height of the arches;
  • radiography in 2 projections — to visualize the state of the bones of the foot;
  • magnetic resonance imaging — for a more detailed study of all the tissues of the foot;
  • densitometry to determine bone density and possible osteoporosis.

In addition, the patient is sent for consultation to the neurologist, the endocrinologist, the rheumatologist for the identification of comorbidities.

Treatments

The detection of deformation in children begin conservative treatment if there is a congenital abnormal location of bones. Appointed physiotherapy, massage, electrical stimulation of muscles. If significant deformation is carried out redressing of the foot — gradual alignment with the fixing of the plaster bandages. This contributes to the gradual relaxation and lengthening shortened muscles. After the dressings are removed also prescribed rehabilitation treatment, wearing orthopedic shoes.

Surgical treatment is carried out in the case of shortening of the tendons, is the plastic tendon (lengthening), followed by immobilization for up to 2 months, then prescribe a course of rehabilitation and orthopedic shoes.

Treatment of hallux valgus in adults with conservative methods has no effect. Only if it is expressed slightly, electrica prescribed ratio, physical therapy, orthopedic, or simply comfortable shoes. In other cases, treatment is only surgical. Type of surgery for hallux valgus picked individually. Perform the resection of individual bones of the foot, lengthening of tendons arthrodesis of joint (short) and so on. After surgery the limb is fixed at 1.5-2 months of plaster cast or a special bus, and then appoint rehabilitation treatment.

valgus deformity of the big toe

Valgus deformity of the big toe: causes, symptoms

One of the most common diseases in the population — valgus deformity of the big toe, called at home bumps on the fingers. The most susceptible women and the elderly, however, it does not spare the younger age. The medical name of the disease — hallux valgus, Latin for the following: hallux — "1st finger" valgus "deviation". It occurs in the direction outwards from the longitudinal axis of the foot often affects both feet.

Reasons

The basis of such deformation is the disease of the 1st metatarsal a-phalangem joint located at the base of the finger. It observed degenerative changes (artrose-arthritis) and inflammation of periarticular tissues — joint capsule (bursitis). There are 4 main reasons leading to the defeat of the joint, they are all connected with uncomfortable shoes:

  • too high heel;
  • on the contrary, shoes with very flat soles;
  • narrow shoes;
  • small, not in size shoes.

The disease has a genetic predisposition and occurs in the elderly on the background of dystrophic lesions of the joints, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic joint damage and blood circulation disorders of the feet.

Note. As a professional disease valgus. fingers develops with age in professional dancers dancing on Pointe, with systematic axial compression of the 1st toe.

The symptoms and stages of the disease

Besides the fact that hallux valgus curvature of the thumb breaks the aesthetics of the foot, the patient suffers from pain in the feet, sometimes painful, there are difficulties with the selection of shoes. Particularly affected by this women, forced to abandon fashionable shoes. Gradually, the deformation of the finger increases, it is superimposed on top of a nearby finger or, on the contrary, beneath it downward, it shortens the tendon develops a flexion contracture.

On the skin of the joints appear painful callosity in place of squeezing of the 2nd finger (on its surface) can form ulcers. Depending on the severity of the changes there are the following stages of the disease:

  1. The angle of deflection of the finger does not exceed 15°.
  2. The deflection angle in the range of 16-20°.
  3. The angle of deflection exceeds 20°.

Important! At the first manifestations of the disease should consult a doctor. At an advanced stage to fully cure the hallux valgus deformity of the fingers is not always possible.

treatment of valgus

Diagnosis and treatment of hallux valgus big toe

The survey in this disease includes x-rays, additionally performed MRI, or ultrasound to visualize all tissues and blood vessels. If necessary, consultations shall rheumatologist, dermatologist, vascular surgeon.

Treatment of valgus deformation of the big toe may be performed conservatively or surgically. Only at the initial stage of the disease, you can do without surgery. Appointed spacious shoes, special orthopedic pads-rectifiers reduces the load on the thumb. Assigned to physiotherapy, electrica ratio, balneotherapy (mineral baths), pelotherapy (mud).

2nd and 3rd stage of the disease are treated only surgically. There are many methods of surgery: removal of the joint capsule, resection of the head and modeling of bone and other. After the operation, imposed a special bus for up to 8 weeks, then assigned to the rehabilitation. Typically, time is made the operation completely eliminates the defect.

Hallux valgus or hallux is a serious pathology, leading to the development of irreversible changes and complications. The treatment should start on time.

17.12.2018