The vast majority of cases, this pathology develops in women (98%). The risk of hallux valgus increases with age up to 30 years bone on the leg side is formed only 3% of the population, and after 30 years the disease is detected already at 9%.
Why formed bone on foot
Located on the inner side of the foot at the base of the thumb bone formation, which is commonly called a pit or a bump, actually a thickened and protruding head of the metatarsal bone of the thumb.
A metatarsal bone of the foot are arranged parallel to each other, but with the wrong load on the stop angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the thumb increases, and the thumb is starting to shift to the side (the head of the bone is deflected outward, and the upper part of the finger in the opposite direction).
Changing the angle between the bones (valgus angle) causes gradually progressive curvature of the thumb, leads to a weakening of ligaments and muscles, triggers inflammation in phalangem metatarsus joint (bursitis) and deformity of the other toes of the foot.
At the initial stage of deformation is not accompanied by painful symptoms, so changes are often perceived as a cosmetic flaw.
The stage of the disease
As conservative treatment is effective only at the initial stage of the disease, before how to treat bunions on feet, it is important to determine the stage of pathology. The stage of the disease is not determined by the size of the bones in the feet, and the largest valgus angle.
- At the first stage of valgus angle less than 15 degrees. Discomfort practically no outwardly noticeable small bump at the base of the thumb, perhaps redness of the skin in the area of bone due to constant friction.
- In the second stage valgus angle less than 20 degrees. Occasionally occurs pain syndrome tubercle increases in size, there is swelling and inflammation of the joint.
- For the third stage is characterized by a deviation to 30 degrees. Deviation of the big toe and the bone on the leg side clearly visible, appear sharp debilitating pain under the fingers are formed corns and calluses.
- In the fourth stage the angle increases by more than 30 degrees, the pain is present constantly, there is deformity of the other toes.
Causes of deformation
The most common cause of bunions on the foot is wearing a certain type of shoes. Female gender is suffering from the orthopedic problems because of the love for high heels, narrow toes of shoes or narrow shoes – these shoes causes an increased load on the foot and compresses the front part. So, orthopedists noted the increase in the number of cases of deformity of the thumb of Japanese women after the Second World war, when a fascination with American culture on the Japanese Islands became fashionable to wear the high-heel shoes (previously valgus deformation was identified predominantly in women in Europe and America).
Not infrequently, the shoes is not the cause, but provoking an external factor. If formed bone in the leg, the true causes can be endemic (from the patient may contain various diseases that lead to deformation of the foot).
The internal reasons for valgus deformation will include:
- Flat feet
- Connective tissue dysplasia
- Polyneuropathy, poliomyelitis and cerebral palsy
- Psoriatic arthropathy
Provoke the development of bones in the leg also rapid growth in puberty (therefore isolated youth valgus deformation of the big toe) and vocational strain (from excessive load on the foot suffer ballerinas, waitresses, athletes, etc.)
Treatment with conservative methods
Treatment bone of the leg starts with replacing an uncomfortable Shoe models with a wide toe box and no heel height.
Depending on the individual characteristics of the foot doctor may recommend:
- Special strip for the joint capsule of the thumb (boursault protectores). These pads protect the problem area from pressure and friction when in contact with shoes and with regular use reduce pain. Gel fabric protector softens the skin thanks to put on the inner side of a gel coating (gel consists of mineral oils, which have anti-inflammatory action). Protector silicone does not cause allergies, easily accepts the necessary form and returns to original shape after use, hygiene (disinfecting and washing with soap).
- Insoles for the abduction of the big toe. Distinguished by the presence of protrusions on the outer side and have a special limiter in the thumb area.
- Push-in orthopedic devices, which record the finger and change the load distribution on the foot.
- The design of some of the types of orthopedic products that are used when the bone of the leg allows you to wear them throughout the working day.
To push products include:
- Fingers septum ring for the first finger of the foot. Different anatomical shape, the ability to soften and protect the skin thanks to the vitamins included in the composition of the material. Separates 1st and 2nd toes, and puts the 1st finger to its original position. Not slide off, allow washing in manual mode.
- Bandage of Hypo allergenic plastic. Helps keep thumb in proper position. Worn only during sleep (before getting removed), diabetes use requires the advice of a doctor.
- Gel pads that do not slip and protect from the friction, prevent the formation of corns, reduce pain when walking.
- Valgus brace. Put on the big or second toe to the big toe and foot (part of foot open), etc.
In the presence of the joint inflammation are used:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Corticosteroid injections into the affected joint.
- Physiotherapy. Includes electrophoresis with calcium, ozokeritoterapija of an application and phonophoresis of hydrocortisone, is in the hospital.
- Shock-wave treatment, in which the cartilage outgrowth in the joint decreases due to the destruction calcined. In the course of treatment restored the blood circulation of surrounding tissues and improves their elasticity, strengthens the ligaments and muscles of the foot, eliminating inflammation of the joint.
Therapeutic exercise, massage, and traditional methods
How to treat a bone on the foot with the help of physical therapy, explains in detail doctor-orthopedist. Tangible results physiotherapy provides in the initial stages of the disease, but to achieve the desired effect it is necessary:
- to perform the exercises daily;
- to comply with the required number of sets (in the presence of fatigue, you can take a break, but if you need to repeat the exercise 5 times, to perform it 5 times);
- do not forget to perform handling exercises after load on his feet.
To strengthen the joints of the toes recommended:
- Sitting on a chair, put your feet up at a right angle, relying totally on foot. Using only the toes, move the feet back and forth 8-10 times (movements resemble the movement of a caterpillar).
- Sitting on the floor, stretch your legs forward and rest your hands on the floor, and then bend the leg at the ankle (10-15 bends on each foot).
- Sitting on the floor, straighten the legs and raise the toes as widely as possible, to hold them in this position for 10 seconds and then return your fingers to the starting position. Exercises are performed 10 times.
- Put on the floor a small object (is – a pencil or pen) and raise his toes.
- Sitting on the floor, alternately bend and extend the toes until you feel fatigue.
- Put on the floor a sheet of paper and crush it with my toes.
- Put on the floor a bottle of water or a rolling pin and roll it with foot (can be performed seated or standing).
You can also perform the exercise with multidirectional movements. To do this, pull up the fingers the big toe, and push it down muscular stress. Lock finger at one point, 3 seconds press for 5 seconds to make a break. Likewise performed an exercise in which the big toe is pressed against the floor with the fingers and thus muscle strength, he claws up.
In order to avoid bone on foot, and people with increased load on the legs is recommended:
- before going to bed to do foot bath with sea salt or herbs to improve blood supply to the feet;
- wear comfortable shoes (avoid models with the narrow nose and limit the models wearing high-heeled shoes);
- with flat feet apply orthopedic insoles;
- eat right (keep your weight at a tendency to be overweight and diet for gout);
- exercise, which helps to maintain the tone of the legs;
- the appearance of discomfort in the area of the big toe to promptly visit a podiatrist.
Also useful massage that helps to relieve foot after exercise during the working day.